The principal results of experimental works carried out at the reactor of PNPI are connected with the discovery and study of parity non-conservation in nuclear transitions and fission, the search for the neutron dipole moment, the precision measurement of the lifetime of a neutron, and the study of the asymmetry of its beta-decay.
In solid state physics important results were received in the investigations of the HJSC and magnetics structure on the atomic level. The spin dynamics of phase transitions was studied by the use of polarized neutrons, the critical scattering from the three-spin correlations and the inelastic scattering asymmetry with the magnetic field present were revealed experimentally.
The technique of crystal-diffraction spectroscopy of high resolution, with the help of which in PNPI first-class results were received in nuclear spectroscopy and solid state physics, made it possible to pass over the study of the particle channeling effect and to use it in accelerator technology and high energy physics.
The nucleon- and pion-nucleon scattering, the spatial and momentum nucleon distributions in nuclei and the properties of nuclei far from the line of beta-stability were studied experimentally at the synchrocyclotron. The results of theoretical and experimental studies of the process of hydrogen isotopes muon catalyzed fusion advanced PNPI into a number of world leaders in this field.
On the base of PNPI synchrocyclotron the method of proton stereotaxis therapy suggested by Central Roentgen-Radiological Institute (St.Petersburg) has been developed and realized with using of narrow 1000 MeV proton beam in the combination with the rotation technique of the irradiation. The sharp boarders of the irradiation zone and a high ratio of the dose in the centre of the irradiation object to the dose of surrounding tissues allowed to use this method for the effective bloodness surgery of head brain various diseases. In particular, the especially good results are achieved in the pituitary adenoma and arteriovenous malformation of the brain treatment. Since 1975 the course of proton therapy at the PNPI synchrocyclotron has been given to 1257 patients.
The theoretical study results of the asymptotic behaviour of hadron interaction amplitudes, the perturbative and non-perturbative OCD, the extented standard electroweak model, the self-consistent methods in the theory of complex nuclei and heavy atoms, the description of P- and T-odd effects in atoms and molecules are also generally recognized.
The determination of the details of the protein biosynthesis mechanism, the elaboration of the diagnostic methods of human hereditary diseases, the creation of biological test-systems for ecological monitoring are the results of biologically active macromolecules and cell structures research in PNPI.